Verification & Validation 18 May 2012

I’ve read many articles (tutorials, books, courses, forums…) about Verification & Validation. One think that really strikes me is the lack of consistency and the fuzziness among the definitions or more precisely among the interpretations. As I do think that something cannot be understood completely if it is not be expressed clearly, I propose a mini-serie of blog posts to clarify Verification & Validation and the associated activities. I will try to give simple and consistent (at least in my point of view) definitions. Sure, this is a rehash of well-known stuff but putting everything at the same place seems worth to me. I do not pretend to know best and thus feel free to comment on this post to correct me or to suggest other explanations and definitions. My only purpose is to help to better understand these words and the underlying concepts.

Verification & Validation

Most of the literature on the subject distinguish between Verification and Validation. The usual way (taken from Barry Boehm) to sum up the difference between the two is to say that:

Verification consist in checking that we are building the product right, and validation consists in checking building the right product.

I am not very satisfied with this definition. Although it sounds good, it raises the question of what it does mean to built a product right and what the right product is. Let’s go back to the roots by looking at the definitions of these words in the Merriam-Webster dictionary. <!— ###Oxford dictionary Verification: the process of establishing the truth, accuracy, or validity of something.
Validation: check or prove the validity or accuracy of something.

###Cambridge dictionary Verification: to prove that something exists or is true, or to make certain that something is correct.
Validation: to make something officially acceptable or approved, especially after examining it. –>

Verification: the act or process of “establishing the truth, accuracy, or reality of a claim”.
Validation: the act or process of “making legally valid”.

To summarize, my understanding is that the general sense of verification is to prove a claim whereas validation aims at declaring something legal or official (i.e. something that comply to a set of rules or regulations). Of course this raises the question of what, in the context of software systems, is a claim and what is legal/official. This leads us to the next section that defines terms such as requirements, and specification.

Requirements & Specification

Again, let’s lookup the meaning of these words in the Merriam-Webster dictionary:

Requirement: the need for a particular purpose; depend on for success or survival.
Specification: the act of describing or identifying something precisely or of stating a precise requirement.

A requirement expresses a need upon which the success of the project depends. Whereas, a specification is a precise description of a requirement. Now let us look at the standard definitions in Software Engineering.

Software Requirements & Specification

As a software systems is usually developed in response to someone needs (or supposed needs), it must satisfy that person, that group of person, or that organization needs. Furthermore, it must often comply to a set of regulations or other expectations. This leads us to the following concept:

Requirements represent what the stakeholders expect from the system. It is important to note that the stakeholders can be end-users, power-users or even internal or external regulatory entities such as government agencies that enforce laws and regulations. Stakeholder requirements do not take the feasibility into account nor do they take technical details into account. They only state their problem or expectations.

As it is not possible to have access to all stakeholders at any time during the development process (for instance, to ask questions), it is necessary to capture their requirements in a persistent form. In the following, I call the role that capture the stakeholder requirements: the business analyst.

Specifications capture in a written form what a business analyst understood from the requirements. This written form is usually expressed in natural language or is a mixed of natural language and semi-formal, or formal description. The specifications describe implementable requirements and how to meet them. Therefore, they propose a solution to the problem.

Interestingly enough, there is the same kind of semantical difference between requirements and specifications as between verification and validation. This is the basis that helps to understand the subtle yet important difference between the two terms, in particular in the context of the development of software systems.

It is important to understand is that the specifications are derived from the interpreted requirements and therefore specifications cannot be sound and complete. In other words, there may be things that are over-specified (not sound) and things that are under-specified (not complete).

Let’s imagine for a second that a perfect business analyst did capture exactly what the stakeholders had in mind. This perfect specification must still be implemented and therefore we must ensure that implementation does satisfy the specification (and by transitivity the stakeholders needs).

A software system does reflect the stakeholder requirements if the following hypotheses hold:

  1. All stakeholders expresses their needs in a sound and complete set of requirements;
  2. a business analyst captures these requirements in a sound and complete specification (with respect to the requirements);
  3. the development team understands and implements this specification in a sound and complete way;

Of course non of these hypotheses hold in a real industrial setting but we have to admit them to be able to realize a system. In order to minimize the risk of diverging from the stakeholders requirements to much we need a process to ensure that the final system agrees to a certain degree to the stakeholders requirements. This a the role of verification and validation.

Software Verification & Validation

The figure below illustrates the difference between verification and validation and where they take place in the development process. Building a software system consists in capturing the stakeholders’ requirements into a persistent description, called informal specifications (e.g., Use Cases, storyboards, …). This specifies what problems the system addresses. At this stage a number of interpretation mistakes may have occurred leading to incorrect specifications. To limit these problems, the informal specifications must be explained to the user and validated. Developers require non-ambiguous specification to work on. Thus, a design (e.g., UML diagrams) are derived from the informal specifications . Similarly, the quality assurance team derives a formal specification (e.g, Petri nets, test cases, metrics, …). The design and later the implementation are then verified with respect to this formal specification. To a certain extend, the formal specification must itself be validated by the stakeholders.

   Verification and Validation 
Verification and Validation

Verification stands for the process of evaluating whether a software system satisfies the specified requirements. On the design level, it can be achieved by simulation or model checking. On the implementation level, it can be achieved by different kind of testing, code review, static analysis, and metrics. In other words: “Did we build the system right (with respect to specified requirements)?”.

Validation stands for the process of evaluating whether a software system satisfies the stakeholder requirements and intended uses . This is, for instance, achieved by User Acceptance Tests and by submitting the final system to certification authorities. In other words: “Did we build the right (with respect to stakeholder requirements) system?”.


Stakeholders cannot be available at any time of the development. Therefore, it is necessary to build a persistent view (i.e., specification) of their needs (i.e., requirements). The activity of checking whether the design and the implementation fulfill the specification is called Verification Some details may be lost in the translation from the requirements to the specification. Therefore, at each phase of the development of a software systems, we must check that what has been specified and later implemented during that phase reflect the stakeholders’ expectations. This activity is called validation . Integrating these two concepts as first class citizen, is one of the major benefits of agile methods. Because the interpretation of the stakeholder requirements and later the translation from the informal specifications to the formal specifications may be incomplete or incorrect, it is necessary to often go back to the customer or the stakeholders to confirm that the product is on the good track. This is one of the major benefits of iterative and incremental development.